Friday

May 6, 2011

By Rosanne Prinsen, MSc

Alberta Centre for Active Living

Note: where possible we provide the DOI to link to research papers in the Info Round up.  To use it, cut and paste the DOI into the text box on this webpage: http://dx.doi.org/ Access to research articles will be dependent on your Institutional rights.

ACTIVE TRANSPORTATION
Health & Place Article in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Urban planners should not be discouraged to build high-walkable environments, but next to objective walkability, also environmental perceptions should be considered to achieve neighborhood satisfaction.

Over the 6-year study, with a budget of approximately $1 million, each city identified problem locations, selected and installed countermeasures, and evaluated the impact on pedestrian safety. After the completion of each city’s self-evaluation (between 2007 and 2008), FHWA conducted an independent assessment to compare the effectiveness of the deployments.

Shared-use paths are paved, off-street travelways that serve bicyclists, pedestrians, and other nonmotorized modes of travel… the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has developed a new method to estimate the level of service (LOS) on a shared-use path, using a team of researchers led by the North Carolina State University Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering.

"The Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC) is excited to announce the inaugural round of Walk Friendly Communities (WFC). After evaluating applicant communities in several categories related to walking, including safety, mobility, access and comfort, PBIC has recognized the following 11 communities for their commitment to improving walkability and pedestrian safety."

Livable communities are a high priority of the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Obama Administration. A livable community is one that provides safe and convenient transportation choices to all citizens, whether it’s by walking, bicycling, transit, or driving….. The FHWA’s Office of Safety develops projects, programs and materials for use in reducing pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities.

The Pedestrians' Quality Needs Project (PQN) established what people need to choose to walk. The summary provides an understanding of those needs and how they can be met and supported by policy.

We created the term ‘slow zone‘ treatment or program to generically describe the aim of any program that modified the physical road environment in such a way it would moderate driver behaviour, slow vehicle traffic, and/or improve the environment of the neighbourhood….

The findings come from a study which used cameras on helmets and inside cars to record journeys in Melbourne. Participants were also asked to comment on tape about what they were observing on the road. These perspectives were then elaborated in a series of focus groups involving drivers and riders.

This is a notice of a guidance in progress.  Expected date of issue: October 2012.

CHILDREN
Health & Place Article in Press, Accepted Manuscript
-assessed vigorous PA (VPA) was positively associated with the number of locations regularly used (ß=0.04, p=0.03) and total visits to all locations among Latinos (ß=0.09, p=0.005). Parental PA support was positively associated with locations used (ß=0.64, p<0.001) and visits to all locations (ß=2.56, p<0.001). Children using a greater variety of locations did more VPA.

AHKC reports that during the after-school period, from approximately 3 to 6 p.m., Canadian children and youth are sitting idle indoors - getting a mere 14 minutes, out of a possible 180, of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity. It is important to reverse this trend as research shows that children and youth who are physically active during this time improve their overall daily physical activity levels and health.

Coordinated school health (CSH) is recommended by CDC as a strategy for improving students' health and learning in our nation’s schools….. The health of young people is strongly linked to their academic success, and the academic success of youth is strongly linked with their health. Thus, helping students stay healthy is a fundamental part of the mission of schools.
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport Article in Press, Corrected Proof
The prediction equations developed here allow for direct comparisons between studies employing different ActiGraph cutpoints in preschool-age children. These prediction equations give public health researchers and policy makers a more concise picture of physical activity levels of preschool-aged children.

Economics of Education Review Article in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Breaks for physical activity limit class time for academics, potentially reducing learning. However, breaks may improve alertness and achievement….. find no statistical difference in the male and female students’ response to recess and PE. Evidence suggests that recess and PE do not harm student outcomes.

The toolkit is intended for a wide range of adult allies – adults who support youth empowerment and leadership – from those who are experienced and are looking for additional ideas to those who are new to youth engagement.

COMMUNITY
Presentations from the National Symposium on Parks & Grounds and the National Awards Ceremonies held in Halifax Regional Municipality, Nova Scotia, October 27 – 30, 2010. 

OLDER ADULTS
Check out this new New South Wales website targeted at older adults.

Neurobiology of Aging Article in Press, Corrected Proof
At this time, the best prescription for lifestyle interventions for healthy cognitive aging would be sustained physical, social, and mental activities. What remains unknown is which type of activity might be most useful, and whether everyone benefits similarly from the same interventions.

Have you ever thought the walk signs at street corners weren’t long enough? Probably not. But if you’re over 65 years old, it may be a different matter. What seems like a reasonable amount of time to cross a street is more like an Olympic sprint for the elderly. It’s one of numerous issues that have grown in importance as our population not only ages but becomes increasingly concentrated in cities.

OVERWEIGHT/OBESITY
Clin Evid (Online). 2011 Apr 4;2011. pii: 0325.
CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following lifestyle interventions: behavioral, diet, and multifactorial interventions; physical activity; and bariatric surgery.

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
Addictive Behaviors Article in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Clarifies mechanisms of athlete drinking and informs health promotion interventions… Study examined age and gender as moderators of physical activity-alcohol use link… Physical activity associated with alcohol in under 50 years but not over 50 … Relation between physical activity and alcohol use stronger in males than females

Br J Gen Pract. 2011 Mar;61(584):e125-33.
CONCLUSION: Most interventions to increase physical activity were cost-effective, especially where direct supervision or instruction was not required. Walking, exercise groups, or brief exercise advice on prescription delivered in person, or by phone or mail appeared to be more cost-effective than supervised gym-based exercise classes or instructor-led walking programs. Many physical activity interventions had similar cost-utility estimates to funded pharmaceutical interventions and should be considered for funding at a similar level.

The American Journal of Cardiology Article in Press, Corrected Proof
BMI was the most important clinical risk factor associated with CRF other than nonmodifiable risk factors age and gender. For a similar amount of physical activity, normal-weight subjects achieved a higher CRF level compared to obese subjects. These data suggest that obesity may offset the benefits of physical activity on achieved CRF, even in a healthy population of men and women.

Br J Sports Med. 2011 Apr;45(4):332-3.
An increased level of sport and physical activity may be associated with more cases of sport and activity related injuries when considering the general population. People who do not do sport or physical activity on a regular basis are more likely to incur more severe injuries when engaging in such activity. Higher levels of physical activity are not necessarily related to an increased all-cause injury rate. There is a reduction in the risk of falls for those who do participate in physical activity programs.

Physical Activity is mentioned 39 times in this 54 page report.  The Canadian Population Health Initiative (CPHI) of the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI), in partnership with the Institute of Population and Public Health (IPPH) of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), has produced a casebook that showcases population health intervention research (PHIR) in Canada.

Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice Article in Press, Corrected Proof
The creation of the new sedentary behaviour paradigm is likely to have a significant impact on research and interventions aimed at the prevention and management of diabetes in the future. This article highlights the key concepts and implications of this new paradigm.

RESEARCH STUFF
Many policies developed in isolation from the available evidence, or initiated and continued in the absence of monitoring and formal evaluation of impact and effectiveness, may well be ineffective in meeting their primary or secondary policy objectives and in some cases may even have unknown and unexpected adverse consequences.

BMC Medical Education 2011, 11:17
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-11-17
This study confirmed that information literacy among this student population was lacking and that integration of modules within the curriculum can help students to filter and establish the quality of online information, a critical component in the training of new health care professionals.

URBAN DESIGN
On April 18, 2011, Council for the City of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada approved in principle the Transportation Master Plan that includes a Complete Streets policy. AT Canada understands it to be the first in Ontario and believe it makes Waterloo the first municipality in Canada to adopt a Complete Streets policy making active transportation an integral part of their municipal transportation system.

This report celebrates and documents the rapid growth of Complete Streets policy adoption and provides a standard analysis of the content of the more than 200 written policies adopted before January 1, 2011. It highlights those policies that come closest to achieving the ‘ideal’ of our ten policy elements. Our purpose in issuing this report is to  provide jurisdictions looking to adopt new policies with guidance and plenty of examples.

This Statistics Canada Report, based on 2005 census data looks at car dependence in urban neighbourhoods. While many people are calling for an end to the excessive use of cars and for greater reliance on more environment-friendly means of transportation, such as car-pooling, public transit, walking and bicycling, many people probably feel helpless when confronted with such suggestions.

This report was prepared by a research working group of the International Transport Forum, composed of experts from 19 countries together with experts from the World Health Organization… . This brief report assembles the most important information on the importance of walking to the future development of our cities and opens with the main key messages from the full report.

WORKPLACE
In 2010, Carewest earned two honourary mentions in Alberta Venture magazine's Alberta's Best Workplaces competition. One was in the category of Best Workplaces Overall (over 750 employees) and the other in the category of Best Workplaces for Health and Safety.

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